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The King Charles Spaniels

In the fourth chapter of Macaulay's History of England we read of
King Charles II. that he might be seen before the dew was off the
grass in St. James's Park, striding among the trees playing with his
Spaniels and flinging corn to his ducks, and these exhibitions
endeared him to the common people, who always like to see the great

Queen Elizabeth's physician, Dr. Caius, described these little
Spaniels as delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges, called the
Spaniel gentle or the comforter, and further said: These dogges are
little, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought for to satisfie the
delicatenesse of daintie dames and wanton women's wills, instruments
of folly for them to play and dally withall, to tryfle away the
treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from their commendable
exercises. These puppies the smaller they be, the more pleasure they
provoke as more meete playfellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in
their bosoms, to keepe company withall in their chambers, to succour
with sleepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at board, to lie in their
lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and good
reason it should be so, for coursenesse with fynenesse hath no
fellowship, but featnesse with neatnesse hath neighbourhood enough.

There would appear to be much divergence of opinion as to the origin
of this breed, and the date of its first appearance in England, but it
was certainly acclimatised here as early as the reign of Henry VIII.,
and it is generally thought that it is of Japanese origin, taken from
Japan to Spain by the early voyagers to the East, and thence imported
into England. The English Toy Spaniels of to-day, especially the
Blenheim variety, are also said by some to be related to some sporting
Spaniels which belonged to Queen Mary about the year 1555, and might
have been brought over from Germany. Mary kept a pack of Spaniels for
hunting purposes.

There is another theory advanced, and with some reason that the
English Toy Spaniel of the present day derived its origin from the
Cocker Spaniel, as these larger dogs have the same colours and
markings, black and tan, tricolour, and red and white. The Cocker also
occasionally has the spot on the forehead which is a characteristic of
the Blenheim.

Be the origin of the King Charles Spaniel, and its advent in this
country, what it may, King Charles II. so much indulged and loved
these little friends that they followed him hither and thither as they
pleased, and seem to have been seldom separated from him. By him they
were loved and cherished, and brought into great popularity; in his
company they adorn canvas and ancient tapestries, and are reputed to
have been allowed free access at all times to Whitehall, Hampton
Court, and other royal palaces.

There are now four recognised varieties of the English Toy Spaniel,
or, more properly speaking, five, as the Marlborough Blenheims are
considered a distinct type. The latter are said by some to be the
oldest of the Toy Spaniels; by others to have been first brought over
from Spain during the reign of Charles II. by John Churchill, first
Duke of Marlborough, from whose home, Blenheim Palace, the name was
derived, and has ever since been retained.

If we may take the evidence of Vandyck, Watteau, Francois Boucher, and
Greuze, in whose pictures they are so frequently introduced, all the
toy Spaniels of bygone days had much longer noses and smaller, flatter
heads than those of the present time, and they had much longer ears,
these in many instances dragging on the ground.

The Marlborough Blenheim has retained several of the ancestral points.
Although this variety is of the same family, and has the same name, as
the short-nosed Blenheim of the present day, there is a great deal of
difference between the two types. The Marlborough is higher on the
legs, which need not be so fully feathered. He has a much longer
muzzle and a flatter and more contracted skull. The Marlborough
possesses many of the attributes of a sporting Spaniel; but so also
does the modern Blenheim, although perhaps in a lesser degree. He has
a very good scent. Mr. Rawdon B. Lee states that the Blenheims of
Marlborough were excellent dogs to work the coverts for cock and
pheasant, and that excepting in colour there is in reality not much
difference in appearance between the older orange and white dogs (not
as they are to-day, with their abnormally short noses, round skulls,
and enormous eyes), and the liver and white Cockers which H. B. Chalon
drew for Daniel's Rural Sports in 1801.

This will bear out the statement that the smaller type of Spaniel may
be descended from the Cockers.

The ground colour of this dog is white, with chestnut encircling the
ears to the muzzle, the sides of the neck are chestnut, as are also
the ears. There is a white blaze on the forehead, in the centre of
which should be a clear lozenge-shaped chestnut spot, called the
beauty spot, which by inbreeding with other varieties is fast being
lost. Chestnut markings are on the body and on the sides of the
hind-legs. The coat should incline to be curly; the head must be flat,
not broad, and the muzzle should be straight. The chestnut should be
of a rich colour.

The four varieties--the King Charles, Tricolour or (as he has been
called) Charles I. Spaniel, the modern Blenheim, and the Ruby--have
all the same points, differing from one another in colour only, and
the following description of the points as determined by the Toy
Spaniel Club serves for all:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Should be well domed, and in good specimens is absolutely
semi-globular, sometimes even extending beyond the half-circle, and
projecting over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the upturned nose.
EYES--The eyes are set wide apart, with the eyelids square to the line
of the face, not oblique or fox-like. The eyes themselves are large,
and dark as possible, so as to be generally considered black, their
enormous pupils, which are absolutely of that colour, increasing the
description. There is always a certain amount of weeping shown at the
inner angles. This is owing to a defect in the lachrymal duct.
STOP--The stop or hollow between the eyes is well marked, as in the
Bulldog, or even more so; some good specimens exhibit a hollow deep
enough to bury a small marble. NOSE--The nose must be short and well
turned up between the eyes, and without any indication of artificial
displacement afforded by a deviation to either side. The colour of the
end should be black, and it should be both deep and wide with open
nostrils. JAW--The muzzle must be square and deep, and the lower jaw
wide between the branches, leaving plenty of space for the tongue, and
for the attachment of the lower lips, which should completely conceal
the teeth. It should also be turned up or finished, so as to allow
of its meeting the end of the upper jaw turned up in a similar way, as
above described. EARS--The ears must be long, so as to approach the
ground. In an average-sized dog they measure twenty inches from tip to
tip, and some reach twenty-two inches, or even a trifle more. They
should be set low on the head, hang flat to the sides of the cheeks,
and be heavily feathered. In this last respect the King Charles is
expected to exceed the Blenheim, and his ears occasionally extend to
twenty-four inches. SIZE--The most desirable size is indicated by the
accepted weight of from 7 lb. to 10 lb. SHAPE--In compactness of shape
these Spaniels almost rival the Pug, but the length of coat adds
greatly to the apparent bulk, as the body, when the coat is wetted,
looks small in comparison with that dog. Still, it ought to be
decidedly cobby, with strong, stout legs, short broad back and wide
chest. The symmetry of the King Charles is of importance, but it is
seldom that there is any defect in this respect. COAT--The coat should
be long, silky, soft and wavy, but not curly. In the Blenheim there
should be a profuse mane, extending well down in the front of the
chest. The feather should be well displayed on the ears and feet, and
in the latter case so thickly as to give the appearance of their being
webbed. It is also carried well up the backs of the legs. In the Black
and Tan the feather on the ears is very long and profuse, exceeding
that of the Blenheim by an inch or more. The feather on the tail
(which is cut to the length of three and a half to four inches) should
be silky, and from five to six inches in length, constituting a marked
flag of a square shape, and not carried above the level of the back.
COLOUR--The colour differs with the variety. The Black and Tan is a
rich glossy black and deep mahogany tan; tan spots over the eyes, and
the usual markings on the muzzle, chest, and legs are also required.
The Ruby is a rich chestnut red, and is whole-coloured. The presence
of a few white hairs intermixed with the black on the chest of a
Black and Tan, or intermixed with the red on the chest of a Ruby
Spaniel, shall carry weight against a dog, but shall not in itself
absolutely disqualify; but a white patch on the chest or white on
any other part of a Black and Tan or Ruby Spaniel shall be a
disqualification. The Blenheim must on no account be whole-coloured,
but should have a ground of pure pearly white, with bright rich
chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed in large patches. The
ears and cheeks should be red, with a blaze of white extending from
the nose up the forehead, and ending between the ears in a crescentic
curve. In the centre of this blaze at the top of the forehead there
should be a clear spot of red, of the size of a sixpence. Tan ticks
on the fore-legs and on the white muzzle are desirable. The Tricolour
should in part have the tan of the Black and Tan, with markings like
the Blenheim in black instead of red on a pearly-white ground. The
ears and under the tail should also be lined with tan. The Tricolour
has no spot, that beauty being peculiarly the property of the
Blenheim. The All Red King Charles is known by the name of Ruby
Spaniel; the colour of the nose is black. The points of the Ruby
are the same as those of the Black and Tan, differing only in

* * * * *

The King Charles variety used to consist of black and tan and black
and white Spaniels, and it is thought that by the inter-breeding of
the two specimens the Tricolour was produced. The colour of the King
Charles now is a glossy black with rich mahogany tan spots over the
eyes and on the cheeks. There should also be some tan on the legs and
under the tail.

The Prince Charles, or Tricolour, should have a pearly-white ground
with glossy black markings evenly distributed over the body in
patches. The ears should be lined with tan; tan must also be seen over
the eyes, and some on the cheeks. Under the tail also tan must appear.

The Blenheim must also have a pearly-white ground with bright rich
chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed in patches over the
body. The ears and cheeks must be red, and a white blaze should
stretch from the nose to the forehead and thence in a curve between
the ears. In the middle of the forehead there should be, on the white
blaze, a clear red spot about the size of a sixpence. This is called
the Blenheim spot, which, as well as the profuse mane, adds greatly
to the beauty of this particular Toy Spaniel. Unfortunately, in a
litter of Blenheims the spot is often wanting.

The Ruby Spaniel is of one colour, a rich, unbroken red. The nose is
black. There are now some very beautiful specimens of Ruby Spaniels,
but it is only within the last quarter of a century that this variety
has existed. It seems to have originally appeared in a litter of King
Charles puppies, when it was looked upon as a freak of nature, taking
for its entire colour only the tan markings and losing the black

The different varieties of Toy Spaniels have been so much interbred
that a litter has been reputed to contain the four kinds, but this
would be of very rare occurrence. The Blenheim is now often crossed
with the Tricolour, when the litter consist of puppies quite true to
the two types. The crossing of the King Charles with the Ruby is also
attended with very good results, the tan markings on the King Charles
becoming very bright and the colour of the Ruby also being improved.
Neither of these specimens should be crossed with either the Blenheim
or the Tricolour, as white must not appear in either the King Charles
or the Ruby Spaniel.

It is regretted by some of the admirers of these dogs that custom has
ordained that their tails should be docked. As portrayed in early
pictures of the King Charles and the Blenheim varieties, the tails are
long, well flagged, and inclined to curve gracefully over the back,
and in none of the pictures of the supposed ancestors of our present
Toy Spaniels--even so recent as those painted by Sir Edwin Landseer--do
we find an absence of the long tail.

If left intact, the tail would take two or three years to attain
perfection, but the same may be said of the dog generally, which
improves very much with age, and is not at its best until it is three
years old, and even then continues to improve.

Although the Toy Spaniels are unquestionably true aristocrats by
nature, birth, and breeding, and are most at home in a drawing-room or
on a well-kept lawn, they are by no means deficient in sporting
proclivities, and, in spite of their short noses, their scent is very
keen. They thoroughly enjoy a good scamper, and are all the better for
not being too much pampered. They are very good house-dogs, intelligent
and affectionate, and have sympathetic, coaxing little ways. One point
in their favour is the fact that they are not noisy, and do not yap
continually when strangers go into a room where they are, or at other
times, as is the habit with some breeds of toy dogs.

Those who have once had King Charles Spaniels as pets seldom care to
replace them by any other variety of dog, fearing lest they might not
find in another breed such engaging little friends and companions,
gentle as of yore and also comforters.

Although these dogs need care, they possess great powers of endurance.
They appreciate warmth and comfort, but do not thrive so well in
either extreme heat or intense cold. One thing to be avoided is the
wetting of their feathered feet, or, should this happen, allowing them
to remain so; and, as in the case of all dogs with long ears, the
interior of the ears should be carefully kept dry to avoid the risk of

In going back to a period long before the last century was half-way
through, we find that a great number of these ornamental pets were in
the hands of working men living in the East End of London, and the
competition among them to own the best was very keen. They held
miniature dog shows at small taverns, and paraded their dogs on the
sanded floor of tap-rooms, their owners sitting around smoking long
church-warden pipes. The value of good specimens in those early days
appears to have been from P5 to P250, which latter sum is said to have
been refused by a comparatively poor man for a small black and tan
with very long ears, and a nose much too long for our present-day
fancy. Among the names of some old prominent breeders and exhibitors
may be mentioned those of C. Aistrop, J. Garwood, J. A. Buggs, and
Mrs. Forder.

It is interesting to note, on looking over a catalogue of the Kennel
Club Show, that in 1884 the classes for Toy Spaniels numbered five,
with two championship prizes, one each for Blenheims and Black and
Tans, and the total entries were 19. At this date neither Tricolours
nor Rubies were recognised as a separate variety by the Kennel Club,
and they had no place in the register of breeds until the year 1902.
At the Kennel Club show in 1904 thirty-one classes were provided and
eight challenge certificate prizes were given, the entries numbering

The formation of the Toy Spaniel Club in 1885, and the impetus
given to breeders and exhibitors by the numerous shows with good
classification, have caused this beautiful breed to become more
popular year by year. Fifty years ago the owners might be almost
counted on the fingers of one's hands; now probably the days of the
year would hardly cover them.

Among the most successful exhibitors of late years have been the Hon.
Mrs. McLaren Morrison, the Hon. Mrs. Lytton, Mrs. Graves, Mrs. L. H.
Thompson, Miss Young, Mrs. H. B. Looker, Mrs. Privette, Miss Hall, the
Misses Clarkson and Grantham, Mrs. Dean, Mr. H. Taylor, Mrs. Bright,
Mrs. Adamson, Miss Spofforth, Mrs. Hope Paterson, Mrs. Lydia Jenkins,
and Miss E. Taylor.

The novice fancier, desirous of breeding for profit, exhibition, or
pleasure, when price is an object for consideration, is often better
advised to purchase a healthy puppy from a breeder of repute rather
than to be deluded with the notion that a good adult can be purchased
for a few pounds, or to be carried away with the idea that a cheap,
indifferently bred specimen will produce first-class stock. It takes
years to breed out bad points, but good blood will tell.

When you are purchasing a bitch with the intention of breeding, many
inquiries should be made as to the stock from which she comes. This
will influence the selection of the sire to whom she is to be mated,
and he should excel in the points in which she is deficient. It is
absolutely necessary to have perfectly healthy animals, and if the
female be young, and small stock is desired, her mate should be
several years her senior. A plain specimen of the right blood is quite
likely to produce good results to the breeder; for example, should
there be two female puppies in a well-bred litter, one remarkable as
promising to have all the requirements for a coming champion, the
other large and plain, this latter should be selected for breeding
purposes as, being stronger, she will make a better and more useful
mother than her handsome sister, who should be kept for exhibition, or
for sale at a remunerative price.

The modern craze for small specimens makes them quite unsuitable for
procreation. A brood bitch should not be less than 9 lb. in weight,
and even heavier is preferable. A sire the same size will produce
small and far more typical stock than one of 5 lb. or 6 lb., as the
tendency is to degenerate, especially in head points; but small size
can be obtained by suitably selecting the parents.

The early spring is the best season for breeding, as it gives the
puppies a start of at least six months in which to grow and get strong
before the cold weather sets in, although, of course, they can be bred
at any time, but autumn and winter puppies are more troublesome to
rear. It is always wise to administer occasionally, both to puppies
and adults, a dose of worm medicine, so as to give no chance to
internal parasites--the most troublesome ill with which the dog owner
has to wrestle, causing even more mortality than the dreaded scourge
of distemper.

The rules of hygiene cannot be overlooked, as upon them hangs the
success of the breeder; plenty of fresh air, light, and sunshine are
as necessary as food. Puppies of this breed are essentially delicate,
and must be kept free from cold and draughts, but they require liberty
and freedom to develop and strengthen their limbs, otherwise they are
liable to develop rickets. Their food should be of the best quality,
and after the age of six months, nothing seems more suitable than
stale brown bred, cut up dice size, and moistened with good stock
gravy, together with minced, lean, underdone roast beef, with the
addition, two or three times a week, of a little well-cooked green
vegetable, varied with rice or suet pudding and plain biscuits. Fish
may also be given occasionally.

When only two or three dogs are kept, table scraps will generally be
sufficient, but the pernicious habit of feeding at all times, and
giving sweets, pastry, and rich dainties, is most harmful, and must
produce disastrous results to the unfortunate animal. Two meals a day
at regular intervals are quite sufficient to keep these little pets in
the best condition, although puppies should be fed four times daily in
small quantities. After leaving the mother they will thrive better if
put on dry food, and a small portion of scraped or finely minced lean
meat given them every other day, alternately with a chopped hard-boiled
egg and stale bread-crumbs.

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