The Dutch

This short horned race, in the opinion of many--as has been previously

remarked--contributed largely, about a century ago, to build up the

Durham or Teeswater stock. It has been bred with special reference to

dairy qualities, and is eminently adapted to supply the wants of the

dairy farmer. The cows of North Holland not only give a large quantity,

but also a very good quality, so that a yield of sixteen to twenty-five

quarts, wine measure, at every milking, is not rare.

The principles upon which the inhabitants of Holland practise, in

selecting a cow from which to breed, are as follows: She should have,

they say, considerable size--not less than four and a half or five feet

girth, with a length of body corresponding; legs proportionally short; a

finely formed head, with a forehead or face somewhat concave; clear,

large, mild and sparkling eyes, yet with no expression of wildness;

tolerably large and stout ears, standing out from the head; fine, well

curved horns; a rather short, than long, thick, broad neck, well set

against the chest and withers; the front part of the breast and

shoulders must be broad and fleshy; the low-hanging dewlap must be soft

to the touch; the back and loins must be properly projected, somewhat

broad, the bones not too sharp, but well covered with flesh; the animal

should have long curved ribs, which form a broad breast bone; the body

must be round and deep, but not sunken into a hanging belly; the rump

must not be uneven, the hip-bones should not stand out too broad and

spreading, but all the parts should be level and well filled up; a fine

tail, set moderately high up and tolerably long, but slender, with a

thick, bushy tuft of hair at the end, hanging down below the hocks; the

legs must be short and low, but strong in the bony structure; the knees

broad, with flexible joints; the muscles and sinews must be firm and

sound, the hoofs broad and flat, and the position of the legs natural,

not too close and crowded; the hide, covered with fine glossy hair, must

be soft and mellow to the touch, and set loose upon the body. A large,

rather long, white and loose udder, extending well back, with four long

teats, serves also as a characteristic mark of a good milch cow. Large

and prominent milk-veins must extend from the navel back to the udder;

the belly of a good milch cow should not be too deep and hanging. The

color of the North Dutch cattle is mostly variegated. Cows with only one

color are no favorites. Red or black variegated, gray and blue

variegated, roan, spotted and white variegated cows, are especially


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