The King Charles Spaniels

In the fourth chapter of Macaulay's History of England we read of

King Charles II. that he might be seen before the dew was off the

grass in St. James's Park, striding among the trees playing with his

Spaniels and flinging corn to his ducks, and these exhibitions

endeared him to the common people, who always like to see the great


Queen Elizabeth's physician, Dr. Caius, described these little

Spaniels as delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges, called the

Spaniel gentle or the comforter, and further said: These dogges are

little, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought for to satisfie the

delicatenesse of daintie dames and wanton women's wills, instruments

of folly for them to play and dally withall, to tryfle away the

treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from their commendable

exercises. These puppies the smaller they be, the more pleasure they

provoke as more meete playfellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in

their bosoms, to keepe company withall in their chambers, to succour

with sleepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at board, to lie in their

lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and good

reason it should be so, for coursenesse with fynenesse hath no

fellowship, but featnesse with neatnesse hath neighbourhood enough.

There would appear to be much divergence of opinion as to the origin

of this breed, and the date of its first appearance in England, but it

was certainly acclimatised here as early as the reign of Henry VIII.,

and it is generally thought that it is of Japanese origin, taken from

Japan to Spain by the early voyagers to the East, and thence imported

into England. The English Toy Spaniels of to-day, especially the

Blenheim variety, are also said by some to be related to some sporting

Spaniels which belonged to Queen Mary about the year 1555, and might

have been brought over from Germany. Mary kept a pack of Spaniels for

hunting purposes.

There is another theory advanced, and with some reason that the

English Toy Spaniel of the present day derived its origin from the

Cocker Spaniel, as these larger dogs have the same colours and

markings, black and tan, tricolour, and red and white. The Cocker also

occasionally has the spot on the forehead which is a characteristic of

the Blenheim.

Be the origin of the King Charles Spaniel, and its advent in this

country, what it may, King Charles II. so much indulged and loved

these little friends that they followed him hither and thither as they

pleased, and seem to have been seldom separated from him. By him they

were loved and cherished, and brought into great popularity; in his

company they adorn canvas and ancient tapestries, and are reputed to

have been allowed free access at all times to Whitehall, Hampton

Court, and other royal palaces.

There are now four recognised varieties of the English Toy Spaniel,

or, more properly speaking, five, as the Marlborough Blenheims are

considered a distinct type. The latter are said by some to be the

oldest of the Toy Spaniels; by others to have been first brought over

from Spain during the reign of Charles II. by John Churchill, first

Duke of Marlborough, from whose home, Blenheim Palace, the name was

derived, and has ever since been retained.

If we may take the evidence of Vandyck, Watteau, Francois Boucher, and

Greuze, in whose pictures they are so frequently introduced, all the

toy Spaniels of bygone days had much longer noses and smaller, flatter

heads than those of the present time, and they had much longer ears,

these in many instances dragging on the ground.

The Marlborough Blenheim has retained several of the ancestral points.

Although this variety is of the same family, and has the same name, as

the short-nosed Blenheim of the present day, there is a great deal of

difference between the two types. The Marlborough is higher on the

legs, which need not be so fully feathered. He has a much longer

muzzle and a flatter and more contracted skull. The Marlborough

possesses many of the attributes of a sporting Spaniel; but so also

does the modern Blenheim, although perhaps in a lesser degree. He has

a very good scent. Mr. Rawdon B. Lee states that the Blenheims of

Marlborough were excellent dogs to work the coverts for cock and

pheasant, and that excepting in colour there is in reality not much

difference in appearance between the older orange and white dogs (not

as they are to-day, with their abnormally short noses, round skulls,

and enormous eyes), and the liver and white Cockers which H. B. Chalon

drew for Daniel's Rural Sports in 1801.

This will bear out the statement that the smaller type of Spaniel may

be descended from the Cockers.

The ground colour of this dog is white, with chestnut encircling the

ears to the muzzle, the sides of the neck are chestnut, as are also

the ears. There is a white blaze on the forehead, in the centre of

which should be a clear lozenge-shaped chestnut spot, called the

beauty spot, which by inbreeding with other varieties is fast being

lost. Chestnut markings are on the body and on the sides of the

hind-legs. The coat should incline to be curly; the head must be flat,

not broad, and the muzzle should be straight. The chestnut should be

of a rich colour.

The four varieties--the King Charles, Tricolour or (as he has been

called) Charles I. Spaniel, the modern Blenheim, and the Ruby--have

all the same points, differing from one another in colour only, and

the following description of the points as determined by the Toy

Spaniel Club serves for all:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Should be well domed, and in good specimens is absolutely

semi-globular, sometimes even extending beyond the half-circle, and

projecting over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the upturned nose.

EYES--The eyes are set wide apart, with the eyelids square to the line

of the face, not oblique or fox-like. The eyes themselves are large,

and dark as possible, so as to be generally considered black, their

enormous pupils, which are absolutely of that colour, increasing the

description. There is always a certain amount of weeping shown at the

inner angles. This is owing to a defect in the lachrymal duct.

STOP--The stop or hollow between the eyes is well marked, as in the

Bulldog, or even more so; some good specimens exhibit a hollow deep

enough to bury a small marble. NOSE--The nose must be short and well

turned up between the eyes, and without any indication of artificial

displacement afforded by a deviation to either side. The colour of the

end should be black, and it should be both deep and wide with open

nostrils. JAW--The muzzle must be square and deep, and the lower jaw

wide between the branches, leaving plenty of space for the tongue, and

for the attachment of the lower lips, which should completely conceal

the teeth. It should also be turned up or finished, so as to allow

of its meeting the end of the upper jaw turned up in a similar way, as

above described. EARS--The ears must be long, so as to approach the

ground. In an average-sized dog they measure twenty inches from tip to

tip, and some reach twenty-two inches, or even a trifle more. They

should be set low on the head, hang flat to the sides of the cheeks,

and be heavily feathered. In this last respect the King Charles is

expected to exceed the Blenheim, and his ears occasionally extend to

twenty-four inches. SIZE--The most desirable size is indicated by the

accepted weight of from 7 lb. to 10 lb. SHAPE--In compactness of shape

these Spaniels almost rival the Pug, but the length of coat adds

greatly to the apparent bulk, as the body, when the coat is wetted,

looks small in comparison with that dog. Still, it ought to be

decidedly cobby, with strong, stout legs, short broad back and wide

chest. The symmetry of the King Charles is of importance, but it is

seldom that there is any defect in this respect. COAT--The coat should

be long, silky, soft and wavy, but not curly. In the Blenheim there

should be a profuse mane, extending well down in the front of the

chest. The feather should be well displayed on the ears and feet, and

in the latter case so thickly as to give the appearance of their being

webbed. It is also carried well up the backs of the legs. In the Black

and Tan the feather on the ears is very long and profuse, exceeding

that of the Blenheim by an inch or more. The feather on the tail

(which is cut to the length of three and a half to four inches) should

be silky, and from five to six inches in length, constituting a marked

flag of a square shape, and not carried above the level of the back.

COLOUR--The colour differs with the variety. The Black and Tan is a

rich glossy black and deep mahogany tan; tan spots over the eyes, and

the usual markings on the muzzle, chest, and legs are also required.

The Ruby is a rich chestnut red, and is whole-coloured. The presence

of a few white hairs intermixed with the black on the chest of a

Black and Tan, or intermixed with the red on the chest of a Ruby

Spaniel, shall carry weight against a dog, but shall not in itself

absolutely disqualify; but a white patch on the chest or white on

any other part of a Black and Tan or Ruby Spaniel shall be a

disqualification. The Blenheim must on no account be whole-coloured,

but should have a ground of pure pearly white, with bright rich

chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed in large patches. The

ears and cheeks should be red, with a blaze of white extending from

the nose up the forehead, and ending between the ears in a crescentic

curve. In the centre of this blaze at the top of the forehead there

should be a clear spot of red, of the size of a sixpence. Tan ticks

on the fore-legs and on the white muzzle are desirable. The Tricolour

should in part have the tan of the Black and Tan, with markings like

the Blenheim in black instead of red on a pearly-white ground. The

ears and under the tail should also be lined with tan. The Tricolour

has no spot, that beauty being peculiarly the property of the

Blenheim. The All Red King Charles is known by the name of Ruby

Spaniel; the colour of the nose is black. The points of the Ruby

are the same as those of the Black and Tan, differing only in


* * * * *

The King Charles variety used to consist of black and tan and black

and white Spaniels, and it is thought that by the inter-breeding of

the two specimens the Tricolour was produced. The colour of the King

Charles now is a glossy black with rich mahogany tan spots over the

eyes and on the cheeks. There should also be some tan on the legs and

under the tail.

The Prince Charles, or Tricolour, should have a pearly-white ground

with glossy black markings evenly distributed over the body in

patches. The ears should be lined with tan; tan must also be seen over

the eyes, and some on the cheeks. Under the tail also tan must appear.

The Blenheim must also have a pearly-white ground with bright rich

chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed in patches over the

body. The ears and cheeks must be red, and a white blaze should

stretch from the nose to the forehead and thence in a curve between

the ears. In the middle of the forehead there should be, on the white

blaze, a clear red spot about the size of a sixpence. This is called

the Blenheim spot, which, as well as the profuse mane, adds greatly

to the beauty of this particular Toy Spaniel. Unfortunately, in a

litter of Blenheims the spot is often wanting.

The Ruby Spaniel is of one colour, a rich, unbroken red. The nose is

black. There are now some very beautiful specimens of Ruby Spaniels,

but it is only within the last quarter of a century that this variety

has existed. It seems to have originally appeared in a litter of King

Charles puppies, when it was looked upon as a freak of nature, taking

for its entire colour only the tan markings and losing the black


The different varieties of Toy Spaniels have been so much interbred

that a litter has been reputed to contain the four kinds, but this

would be of very rare occurrence. The Blenheim is now often crossed

with the Tricolour, when the litter consist of puppies quite true to

the two types. The crossing of the King Charles with the Ruby is also

attended with very good results, the tan markings on the King Charles

becoming very bright and the colour of the Ruby also being improved.

Neither of these specimens should be crossed with either the Blenheim

or the Tricolour, as white must not appear in either the King Charles

or the Ruby Spaniel.

It is regretted by some of the admirers of these dogs that custom has

ordained that their tails should be docked. As portrayed in early

pictures of the King Charles and the Blenheim varieties, the tails are

long, well flagged, and inclined to curve gracefully over the back,

and in none of the pictures of the supposed ancestors of our present

Toy Spaniels--even so recent as those painted by Sir Edwin Landseer--do

we find an absence of the long tail.

If left intact, the tail would take two or three years to attain

perfection, but the same may be said of the dog generally, which

improves very much with age, and is not at its best until it is three

years old, and even then continues to improve.

Although the Toy Spaniels are unquestionably true aristocrats by

nature, birth, and breeding, and are most at home in a drawing-room or

on a well-kept lawn, they are by no means deficient in sporting

proclivities, and, in spite of their short noses, their scent is very

keen. They thoroughly enjoy a good scamper, and are all the better for

not being too much pampered. They are very good house-dogs, intelligent

and affectionate, and have sympathetic, coaxing little ways. One point

in their favour is the fact that they are not noisy, and do not yap

continually when strangers go into a room where they are, or at other

times, as is the habit with some breeds of toy dogs.

Those who have once had King Charles Spaniels as pets seldom care to

replace them by any other variety of dog, fearing lest they might not

find in another breed such engaging little friends and companions,

gentle as of yore and also comforters.

Although these dogs need care, they possess great powers of endurance.

They appreciate warmth and comfort, but do not thrive so well in

either extreme heat or intense cold. One thing to be avoided is the

wetting of their feathered feet, or, should this happen, allowing them

to remain so; and, as in the case of all dogs with long ears, the

interior of the ears should be carefully kept dry to avoid the risk of


In going back to a period long before the last century was half-way

through, we find that a great number of these ornamental pets were in

the hands of working men living in the East End of London, and the

competition among them to own the best was very keen. They held

miniature dog shows at small taverns, and paraded their dogs on the

sanded floor of tap-rooms, their owners sitting around smoking long

church-warden pipes. The value of good specimens in those early days

appears to have been from P5 to P250, which latter sum is said to have

been refused by a comparatively poor man for a small black and tan

with very long ears, and a nose much too long for our present-day

fancy. Among the names of some old prominent breeders and exhibitors

may be mentioned those of C. Aistrop, J. Garwood, J. A. Buggs, and

Mrs. Forder.

It is interesting to note, on looking over a catalogue of the Kennel

Club Show, that in 1884 the classes for Toy Spaniels numbered five,

with two championship prizes, one each for Blenheims and Black and

Tans, and the total entries were 19. At this date neither Tricolours

nor Rubies were recognised as a separate variety by the Kennel Club,

and they had no place in the register of breeds until the year 1902.

At the Kennel Club show in 1904 thirty-one classes were provided and

eight challenge certificate prizes were given, the entries numbering


The formation of the Toy Spaniel Club in 1885, and the impetus

given to breeders and exhibitors by the numerous shows with good

classification, have caused this beautiful breed to become more

popular year by year. Fifty years ago the owners might be almost

counted on the fingers of one's hands; now probably the days of the

year would hardly cover them.

Among the most successful exhibitors of late years have been the Hon.

Mrs. McLaren Morrison, the Hon. Mrs. Lytton, Mrs. Graves, Mrs. L. H.

Thompson, Miss Young, Mrs. H. B. Looker, Mrs. Privette, Miss Hall, the

Misses Clarkson and Grantham, Mrs. Dean, Mr. H. Taylor, Mrs. Bright,

Mrs. Adamson, Miss Spofforth, Mrs. Hope Paterson, Mrs. Lydia Jenkins,

and Miss E. Taylor.

The novice fancier, desirous of breeding for profit, exhibition, or

pleasure, when price is an object for consideration, is often better

advised to purchase a healthy puppy from a breeder of repute rather

than to be deluded with the notion that a good adult can be purchased

for a few pounds, or to be carried away with the idea that a cheap,

indifferently bred specimen will produce first-class stock. It takes

years to breed out bad points, but good blood will tell.

When you are purchasing a bitch with the intention of breeding, many

inquiries should be made as to the stock from which she comes. This

will influence the selection of the sire to whom she is to be mated,

and he should excel in the points in which she is deficient. It is

absolutely necessary to have perfectly healthy animals, and if the

female be young, and small stock is desired, her mate should be

several years her senior. A plain specimen of the right blood is quite

likely to produce good results to the breeder; for example, should

there be two female puppies in a well-bred litter, one remarkable as

promising to have all the requirements for a coming champion, the

other large and plain, this latter should be selected for breeding

purposes as, being stronger, she will make a better and more useful

mother than her handsome sister, who should be kept for exhibition, or

for sale at a remunerative price.

The modern craze for small specimens makes them quite unsuitable for

procreation. A brood bitch should not be less than 9 lb. in weight,

and even heavier is preferable. A sire the same size will produce

small and far more typical stock than one of 5 lb. or 6 lb., as the

tendency is to degenerate, especially in head points; but small size

can be obtained by suitably selecting the parents.

The early spring is the best season for breeding, as it gives the

puppies a start of at least six months in which to grow and get strong

before the cold weather sets in, although, of course, they can be bred

at any time, but autumn and winter puppies are more troublesome to

rear. It is always wise to administer occasionally, both to puppies

and adults, a dose of worm medicine, so as to give no chance to

internal parasites--the most troublesome ill with which the dog owner

has to wrestle, causing even more mortality than the dreaded scourge

of distemper.

The rules of hygiene cannot be overlooked, as upon them hangs the

success of the breeder; plenty of fresh air, light, and sunshine are

as necessary as food. Puppies of this breed are essentially delicate,

and must be kept free from cold and draughts, but they require liberty

and freedom to develop and strengthen their limbs, otherwise they are

liable to develop rickets. Their food should be of the best quality,

and after the age of six months, nothing seems more suitable than

stale brown bred, cut up dice size, and moistened with good stock

gravy, together with minced, lean, underdone roast beef, with the

addition, two or three times a week, of a little well-cooked green

vegetable, varied with rice or suet pudding and plain biscuits. Fish

may also be given occasionally.

When only two or three dogs are kept, table scraps will generally be

sufficient, but the pernicious habit of feeding at all times, and

giving sweets, pastry, and rich dainties, is most harmful, and must

produce disastrous results to the unfortunate animal. Two meals a day

at regular intervals are quite sufficient to keep these little pets in

the best condition, although puppies should be fed four times daily in

small quantities. After leaving the mother they will thrive better if

put on dry food, and a small portion of scraped or finely minced lean

meat given them every other day, alternately with a chopped hard-boiled

egg and stale bread-crumbs.

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