Worms





We have, roughly speaking, two kinds of worms to treat in the dog:

(1) the round, and (2) the tape.



(1) Round-worms--They are in shape and size not unlike the garden

worm, but harder, pale, and pointed.



Symptoms--Sometimes these are alarming, for the worm itself is

occasionally seized with the mania for foreign travel, and finds its

way into the throat or nostrils, causing the dog to become perfectly

furious, and inducing such pain and agony that it may seem charity to

end its life. The worms may also crawl into the stomach, and give rise

to great irritation, but are usually dislodged therefrom by the

violence accompanying the act of vomiting.



Their usual habitat, however, is the small intestines, where they

occasion great distress to their host. The appetite is always depraved

and voracious. At times there is colic, with sickness and perhaps

vomiting, and the bowels are alternately constipated or loose. The

coat is harsh and staring, there usually is short, dry cough from

reflex irritation of the bronchial mucous membrane, a bad-smelling

breath and emaciation or at least considerable poverty of flesh.



The disease is most common in puppies and in young dogs. The appearance

of the ascaris in the dog's stools is, of course, the diagnostic

symptom.



Treatment--I have cured many cases with santonin and areca-nut

powder (betel-nut), dose 10 grains to 2 drachms; or turpentine, dose

from 10 drops to 1-1/2 drachms, beaten up with yolk of egg.



But areca-nut does better for tape-worm, so we cannot do better than

trust to pure santonin. The dose is from 1 grain for a Toy up to 6

grains for a Mastiff. Mix it with a little butter, and stick it well

back in the roof of the dog's mouth. He must have fasted previously

for twelve hours, and had a dose of castor oil the day before. In four

or five hours after he has swallowed the santonin, let him have a dose

of either olive oil or decoction of aloes. Dose, 2 drachms to 2 ounces

or more. Repeat the treatment in five days. Spratts' cure may be

safely depended on for worms. [1]



[1] Many dog owners swear by the preparation called Ruby, which can be

recommended as a cure for worms.--Ed.



The perfect cleanliness of the kennel is of paramount importance.



The animal's general health requires looking after, and he may be

brought once more into good condition by proper food and a course of

vegetable tonics. If wanted in show condition we have Plasmon to fall

back upon, and Burroughs and Wellcome's extract of malt.



There is a round-worm which at times infests the dog's bladder, and

may cause occlusion of the urethra; a whip-worm inhabiting the caecum;

another may occupy a position in the mucous membrane of the stomach;

some infest the blood, and others the eye.



(2) Tape-worms--There are several kinds, but the treatment is the

same in all cases. The commonest in the country is the Cucumerine.



This is a tape-worm of about fifteen inches in average length,

although I have taken them from Newfoundland pups fully thirty inches

long. It is a semi-transparent entozoon; each segment is long compared

to its breadth, and narrowed at both ends. Each joint has, when

detached, an independent sexual existence.



The dog often becomes infested with this parasite from eating sheeps'

brains, and dogs thus afflicted and allowed to roam at pleasure over

fields and hills where sheep are fed sow the seeds of gid in our

flocks to any extent. We know too well the great use of Collie dogs to

the shepherd or grazier to advise that dogs should not be employed as

assistants, but surely it would be to their owners' advantage to see

that they were kept in a state of health and cleanliness.



Treatment--We ought to endeavour to prevent as well as to cure. We

should never allow our dogs to eat the entrails of hares or rabbits.

Never allow them to be fed on raw sheep's intestines, nor the brains

of sheep. Never permit them to lounge around butchers' shops, nor eat

offal of any kind. Let their food be well cooked, and their skins and

kennels kept scrupulously clean. Dogs that are used for sheep and

cattle ought, twice a year at least, to go under treatment for the

expulsion of worms, whether they are infested or not; an anthelmintic

would make sure, and could hardly hurt them.



For the expulsion of tape-worms we depend mostly on areca-nut. In

order that the tape-worm should receive the full benefit of the remedy,

we order a dose of castor oil the day before in the morning, and

recommend no food to be given that day except beef-tea or mutton broth.

The bowels are thus empty next morning, so that the parasite cannot

shelter itself anywhere, and is therefore sure to be acted on.



Infusion of cusco is sometimes used as an anthelmintic, so is wormwood,

and the liquid extract of male fern, and in America spigelia root and

pumpkin seeds.



The best tonic to give in cases of worms is the extract of quassia.



Extract of quassia, 1 to 10 grains; extract of hyoscyamus, 1/2 to 5

grains. To make one pill. Thrice daily.





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