Glanders





This is one of the most destructive of diseases with which the horse

family is afflicted, and one that has set the best veterinary skill of

the world at defiance. A remedy for it has yet to be discovered. I have

deemed it proper here, however, to carefully describe its symptoms, and

to recommend that all animals showing symptoms of it be kept by

themselves until their case be definitely ascertained. When you have

ascertained to a certainty that they are afflicted with the disease,

destroy them as quick as possible. See, too, that the place where they

have been kept is thoroughly cleansed and sprinkled with lime, for the

disease is contagious and the slightest particle of virus will spread it

anew. Farcy is but one stage of this terrible disease, but is not

necessarily fatal while in this stage. It should, however, be treated

with great care and caution. Farcy can also be conveyed to others by

inoculation. Any one who has had the field for observation the author

has for the last four years, would become convinced that the

recommendations I am about to make describe the only course to be taken

with this contagious disease. The number of its victims under my

observation were counted by thousands. All that can be done is to

prevent, if possible, the disease taking place, and to destroy when

ascertained to a certainty that the animal has contracted it. I would

say here, however, that this subject will soon be thoroughly handled in

a work soon to be published by Doctor Braley, head veterinary surgeon of

the army. He will undoubtedly throw some light on the subject that has

not yet appeared in print.



SYMPTOMS.



First:--When it appears in a natural form, without the agency of

contagion or inoculation, dryness of the skin, entire omission of

insensible perspiration, starring of the coat. Sometimes slight

discoloring can be observed about the forehead and lower part of the

ears. Drowsiness, want of lustre in the eye, slight swelling on the

inside of the hind legs, extending up to the bu-boa. This condition of

things may continue for several days, and will be followed by

enlargement between the legs. The inflammation incident to this may

entirely subside, or it may continue to enlarge, and break out in ulcers

on the lactiles of the lymphatic, which accompanies the large veins.

In the last case it has appeared in the form of Farcy. This being the

case, the countenance assumes a more cheerful look, and the animal

otherwise shows signs of relief from the discharges of poisonous matter.

If it remain in this state, death is not generally the result. If the

system be toned up it will sometimes heal, and the animal will seem to

be in a recovering state of health. Yet, from watching the symptoms and

general health of the animal afterwards, you will be convinced that the

disease is only checked, not eradicated. Acting in the system, it only

waits a favorable opportunity to act as a secondary agent in colds,

general debility, or exposure, when it will make its appearance and

produce death.



But in the first case, as shown by the swelling in the hind legs, if the

swelling disappear, and general debility of the system continues; if the

eyes grow more drowsy, and discharge from the lower corners; and if this

is followed by discharge from the nostrils, slight swelling and

hardening of the sub-maxillary glands, which are between the under jaws,

then it is clearly developed glanders. All the glands in the body have

now become involved or poisoned, and death must follow in the course of

ten or fifteen days, as the constitution of the animal may not be in a

condition to combat the disease.



If this disease be annoyed by inoculation from the farcy heads of

farcied animals into suppurating sores on other animals, it will be very

slow in its progress, especially if it attack the other in a region

remote from the lymphatic. If in a saddle-gall, it will make sores very

difficult to heal. If there is any such thing as checking the disease in

its progress, it is in these three cases.



I have observed that when it has been taken in a sore mouth it has

followed down the cheek to the sub-maxillary gland, and ended in a clear

case of glanders or farcy. There is another form in which this disease

can be taken, and which is, of all others, the most treacherous and

dangerous, yet never producing death without the agency of other

diseases--always carrying with it the germs of infection, and ready to

convey it to debilitated subjects and cause their death. The animal will

still live himself, and show no sign of disease further than I am about

to describe in the position. It is that which is taken in at the

nostrils and attacks the sub-maxillary glands, which become enlarged and

will remain so. When these become overloaded there will be a discharge

at the nose. That being thrown off, it may be some time before any

further discharge will be seen from the same source. In some cases, when

the discharge is constant, this can be easily distinguished from gleet

or ozena, from the healthy and natural appearance of the membranes of

the nose, which at first are pale, then become fiery red or purple. In

gleet the discharges from the nostrils, as in ozena, are of a very light

color. In glanders they are first of a deep yellow, then of a dirty

gray--almost slate color.



Mules affected with glanders of this kind, although it may seem hard

from their otherwise healthy appearance, should be destroyed. They

indeed carry with them the germs of infection and death, without any

visible marks in their appearance to warn those who have the care of

animals against their danger.





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